The Tactics of Diplomacy
By Lewis Pulsipher
Anyone who plays and studies Diplomacy can become a good
tactician, for the tactical element of the game is the simplest and most predict
able of the three; negotiation, strategy, and tactics. Tactics is the ordering
and arrangement of your units so as to accomplish your strategic objectives. The
more numerous force usually succeeds and, if not pressed by time, never loses.
Tactical problems can sometimes be solved with the help of mathematical game
theory, but that is beyond the scope of this article. Little can be said about
good tactics as a whole, but many individual points can be noted.
According to game theory, the best way to play a game is to
maximize one’s minimum gains—to assume that the enemy is a perfect player
and move accordingly. When reduced to mathematics this can involve a certain
amount of probability, even in a game such as Diplomacy which uses no chance
mechanism (dice). In terms of Diplomacy tactics it means that you must look for
a move that will make gains regardless of what your opponent does, but always
remember that there is rarely a single best move—outguessing the opponent,
whether by intuition or by probability, is part of the game. A gain can be
possession of a supply center, destruction of an enemy unit, or, especially in
Spring, occupation of a non-center space which will lead to capture of a supply
center in Fall. Spring is the season of maneuver, Fall the season of capture.
When you outnumber the enemy you’re virtually certain to succeed if you
don’t make a mistake, and if unit mix and positioning don’t handicap you at
the start of the war. If you’re outnumbered or desperately need a quick
advance to prevent a third player from gaining the upper hand, then you must
take chances. Try to figure out how the enemy will move and then order your
units to take best advantage of that move. You’ll probably get clobbered, but
you might guess right and leave your enemy in all kinds of trouble, and rather
wary to boot. Remember, in every case, tactics must be subordinated to strategy.
A slow delaying withdrawal in one area might be better than a flamboyant attempt
to turn the tide, if you’re doing well elsewhere.
I mentioned unit mix and positioning above. Numbers are
important in Diplomacy, but other factors can alter the balance. The ratio of
fleets to armies can be vital. If you have too many of one and not enough of the
other you could be beaten by a weaker enemy. Each country tends to have a
natural or average mix of units, as explained in the last issue, and areas have
obvious optimum mixes as well. The Mediterranean area, including the adjacent
lands (Italy, Iberia, southern Balkans, Turkey, Africa) is an area where fleets
are much more valuable than armies. Central Europe is an army area. While this
seems self-evident, all too many players fail to plan ahead when building new
units. Think about where you intend to be two or three game years hence, and
build units which will help at that time. After you’ve expanded to about ten
units it will take one or two years for new units to reach the battle
lines—plan ahead for it. Moreover, think about where you will build a unit
before the opportunity comes, to avoid hasty decisions when faced with a time
When you are doing well you need to expand as rapidly as
possible, getting units behind defenses (especially stalemate lines) before they
form. I call this “headmanning”, from the ice hockey term for moving the
puck up to the most advanced attacker. In a sense the most advanced attacking
unit “carries the puck” for the whole attack, and if it is stopped the
entire attack will bunch up behind it. Get a few units out front as fast as
possible and let newly built units help destroy enemy resistance nearer your
country. A single unit, leading a stream of units, can make the differences
between success and failure of an attack which takes place several years hence.
For example, when Turkey is expanding west it should headman a fleet into the
Atlantic as soon as possible, probably before the last Italian center is
captured, so that the western countries cannot seal Gibraltar (by F Portugal and
F English S F mid-Atlantic).
When the units to headman aren’t available, a lone raider
behind the enemy lines can cripple an enemy attack or defense for years. Most
Spaces in Diplomacy border with six other spaces. Although land/sea differences
help, three to five units are needed to force a lone raider to disband for lack
of a legal retreat. A common way to start a raid is to retreat after battle into
enemy territory rather than toward home, but in many cases a wary opponent will
make sure this isn’t possible.
Another trick of retreating, the “fast retreat home”,
can be worked with an ally. One player dislodges a unit of the other, who
disbands it rather than retreat. This allows him to rebuild the unit at home at
the end of the year, barring loss of a supply center. He can change an army to a
fleet in this way, or bring a useless unit back home to defend it or help
eliminate a raider.
Whether attacking or defending, write your orders
carefully. Several times in almost every game an unintelligible or miswritten
order ruins even the most brilliant plans. Doublecheck! It’s easy to write one
thing when you mean another. Some players take advantage of this common failing
by deliberately miswriting an order. This may confuse the enemy, but more often
it’s a means of double-crossing an ally while pretending innocence.
Defense is often a slow, boring affair, but imaginative use
of attacks is sometimes the only means of successful defense. For example, if
Russia has A Bohemia and A Galicia, and Austria has A Vienna and A Rumania, it
appears that Russia has a sure two to one against Vienna because Rumania cannot
support Vienna. However, if Austria orders A Vienna-Galicia S by A Rumania, then
the Russian will be stood off if he attacks with Galicia S by Bohemia (two vs.
two) as he is likely to do. (If he attacks with Bohemia S by Galicia then A
Rumania Galicia would cut the support and save Vienna.)
Here is a more complex example. Russia has F Aegean and
Armies Bohemia, Galicia, Rumania, and Bulgaria. Austria has Armies Vienna,
Budapest, Serbia, and Greece. Outnumbered five to four, at first glance Austria
seems certain to lose a center. Russia can concentrate two units on Vienna, two
on Greece, and use Rumania to cut one sup port. If Austria merely
“stonewalls” (Budapest and Vienna support each other, Serbia and Greece
support each other) he is certain to lose either Vienna or Greece this season
and another center next season. But if he attacks with all four units (Vienna
Galicia, Budapest-Galicia, Serbia-Bulgaria, Greece-Bulgaria) he may catch the
Russian napping. If the Russian chooses to attack with Bohemia rather than
Galicia, with Aegean rather than Bulgaria, his supports will be cut by Budapest
and Serbia and his attacks will all fail.
Austria takes a chance, because he may lose two or even
three centers rather than one, as follows:
On the other hand, Austria finds himself behind the Russian
lines in Galicia and Bulgaria, with Warsaw and Sevastopol open. If the Russian
is an unimaginative tactician the risk of all-out attack is often worth the
Nonetheless, an attack is not always the best means of
disarranging the enemy. First, you can stand when your opponent expects you to
attack and moves to block it. This will leave his unit(s) Out of position and
could even cost him a center. For ex ample, France moves A Marseilles-Spain in
Spring 1901 while Italy moves A Venice-Piedmont. Now France wants to protect
Marseilles, but he wants to end the Fall season in Spain in order to capture it
(Spring occupation is not sufficient). If France orders A Spain-Marseilles and
Italy orders Piedmont-Marseilles, France will defend Marseilles, capture Spain,
and leave Marseilles open for a possible build. But if Italy holds instead,
France is left with an army in Marseilles, no captured center, and no place to
build a Mediterranean fleet to resist Italy further. This is a classic guessing
game. More often than not France moves to Marseilles, for he can’t afford to
lose a home center.
Second, a nominally attacking unit can actually support a
defender’s move in order to disrupt the defense. For example, in Spring 1901
Russia moves A Warsaw-Galicia while Austria orders A Vienna hold, A
Budapest-Serbia. In Fall Austria wants to protect both Vienna and Budapest and
capture Serbia, so he orders a self standoff: A Vienna- Budapest, A
Serbia-Budapest. This is the classic means of defending three spaces with two
units. Russia, however, may order A Galicia S Austrian A Serbia-Budapest. Then
Serbia-Budapest succeeds (two vs. one) and Austria does not capture Serbia.
Later in the game a similar situation can occur, but with Serbia now owned by
Austria and a Russian unit in Bulgaria as well. Russia could order Galicia S
Serbia-Budapest and Bulgaria-Serbia, capturing Serbia. But in either case the
Austrian can outguess the Russian by standing where he is. In cases like this,
luck and intuition (and game theory if you know how to use it) are your tools.
There is no “best” move.
Finally, avoid center-grubbing. Position can be as
important as possession of an additional supply center, especially in Spring.
Don’t disarrange a good position in order to immediately capture an invitingly
vulnerable center. You may sacrifice so much that you’ll soon lose that center
and more besides. In particular, don’t open a hole in your line unless
you’re sure you can close it before an enemy raider gets through. One enemy
unit behind your lines can delay an entire offensive. Moreover, be wary of
dislodging a defender where the defender can retreat through your lines into
your rear. Don’t be lulled by the apparent simplicity of a position. Every
good tactician pays attention to details which the less skillful don’t notice
or don’t bother about.
Reprinted from The General Vol.18 No.3